Question: "Textual criticism - what is it? The original manuscripts of the Bible are either lost, hidden, or no longer in existence. What we do have is tens of thousands of copies of the original manuscripts dating from the 1st to the 15th centuries A. In these manuscripts, there are many minor and a few significant differences. Textual criticism is the study of these manuscripts in an attempt to determine what the original reading actually was.
Christianity in Turkey has had a long history dating back to the 1st-century AD. In modern times the percentage of Christians in Turkey has declined from 20 to 25 percent in to 3—5. Exact numbers are difficult to estimate as many Muslim converts to Christianity often hide their faith for fear of discrimination or familial pressure. This was due to events which had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the First World War , the genocide of Greeks , Armenians and Syriacs including: Arameans , Assyrians , and Chaldeans , and the population exchange between Greece and Turkey ,  and the emigration of Christians such as Assyrians , Greeks , Armenians etc. There is also a small group of ethnic Orthodox-Christian Turks mostly living in Istanbul or Izmir who follow the Greek Orthodox or Syriac Orthodox church and additionally Protestant Turks who still face difficulties regarding social acceptance and also historic claims to churches or property in the country because they are from recent converts from Muslim Turkish backgrounds rather than ethnic minorities.
The Catholic Church , often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church , is the largest Christian church , with approximately 1. Peter , is the chief pastor of the church,  entrusted with the universal Petrine ministry of unity and correction. The church's administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City , a tiny enclave of Rome , of which the pope is head of state. The core beliefs of Catholicism are found in the Nicene Creed.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts or "books" which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture, but Eugene Ulrich regards the notion as Jewish. Most of the canons listed below are considered by adherents to be "closed" i. These canons have developed through debate and agreement on the part of the religious authorities of their respective faiths and denominations.